Journal Articles

2019

The Analysis of Color-Scape and Local Image of Historic and Cultural Landscape – Focused on Samcheongdong-gil

 Jiah Lee, Jina Park / Journal of Korea Planning Association (KCI)

Abstract

서울의 역사문화경관으로서 북촌의 삼청동길은 고유의 전통적인 가로경관을 통해 가치를 창출하고 있다. 그러나 최근 무분별한 개발과 이질업종의 등장으로 인해 고유의 가로경관이 가진 지역정체성을 잃어가고 있다. 특히 색채는 경관구성요소 중 도시 이미지 형성에 주요한 역할을 미치므로, 본 연구는 역사문화경관으로서 삼청동길의 경관색채를 분석하고 이에 대한 방문객 이미지 설문조사를 통해 지역이미지 개선의 방향성을 제안하고자 한다. 경관색채분석 결과 가로 전반의 주조색은 저채도의 따뜻한 색상으로 온화한, 우아한 등의 이미지를 이루고 있으나, 보조색으로서 일부가 고채도, 원색계열의 화려한, 명랑한 등의 이미지를 띠고 있었다. 방문객 설문결과, 대상지에 기대한 이미지는 주조색이 가진 따뜻한 이미지로 나타났으나, 실제 인지한 것은 보조색이 가진 화려한 이미지를 더 크게 인식한 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 차이는 화려한 색채를 가진 건축 · 시설물이 소량으로 분포함에도 불구하고 대상지 전체가 가지고 있는 고유한 지역색채, 나아가 정체성을 저해하고 있다는 것을 보여준다. 이를 통해 본 연구는 역사문화경관의 이미지 보전을 위해 점포 및 시설물 단위의 색채기준이 수립되어야 함을 제안하고자 한다.

This study aims to analyze ‘the color of street landscape and visitor image questionnaire’ to suggest directions for improvement of local image. The study site is Samcheong-dong that lost its local identity due to indiscreet development and the emergence of heterogeneous industries. First, the result of landscape color analysis shows that the dominant colors of the street is mild and elegant with warm colors of low saturation while the assistance colors have high-quality images of brilliant and primitive colors. Second, the results of the survey indicates that the expected images of pedestrians showed a warm image with the dominant colors, but the images that they felt in the actual recognized the brilliant images. This difference points out that despite the small amount of brilliantly colored buildings and facilities, it hinders the unique local color and even the identity of the whole area. This study insists that even a small amount of facilities should be managed to function as a historical and cultural landscape in accordance with local color standards.

Commercial Diffusion of Spontaneous Undeveloped Residential Area Using Network Analysis – Focused on the Case Gyungridan Street

Junehyung Jeon, Jina Park / Journal of Korea Planning Association (KCI)

Abstract

최근 서울의 쇠퇴한 산업 지역과 노후 주거지역에서 상업화가 진행되고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 사업체 위치정보와 3차원 공간 분석을 통해 자연발생적 노후 주거지역에서 발생하는 상업화 과정을 추적하고 상업 확산에 영향을 미친 요인을 확인하였다. 연구의 결과는 첫째, 경리단길의 상업화는 2007년에는 경리단길 중간 지점의 근린상권에서 시작하여 2013년에는 간선도로변으로 확산이 진행된 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 각 시기별 영향을 미친 요인은 차이를 보였다. 2007년의 확산 과정은 내부가로망의 연결성이 좋은 경사가 완만한 가로를 따라 진행되었다면 2013년의 확산 과정은 외부 연결성이 좋고 상업시설 간 차량이동이 용이한 가로를 따라서 확장된 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 주요 업종 형태에 따라 요구되는 가로 구조의 특성이 변화할 수 있다는 것을 보여준다.

Recently, commercialization is underway in the deteriorated industrial and aging residential areas in Seoul. This study traces the commercialization process occurring in spontaneously aged residential area through business location information and three-dimensional spatial analysis, and identifies the factors influencing the spread of commerce. The results of this study are as follows: First, the commercialization of Gyungridan street began in the neighborhood business district of the middle of Gyungridan street in 2007 and spread to the main road in 2013. Second, over time, different factors influenced the commercialization of the site. While the process of diffusion in 2007 progressed along the street with a smooth slope and good inner connectivity, the diffusion process of 2013 was extended along the street with good external connectivity and easy vehicle movement between commercial facilities. This result implies that factors affecting commercial spread may change depending on the major industry type.

A Study on the Variation Process of Commercial Gentrification Phase in Residential Area in Seoul – Focused on Business Type of Commercial Characteristics –

Hwayeon Ryu, Jina Park / Journal of Korea Planning Association (KCI)

Abstract

The ultimate aim of this study is to diagnose the process stage and look at the step change of transition process to see how the step changes. Therefore, in this study, cluster analysis was conducted by examining four types of commercial characteristics such as Retail Homogeneity, Share of Neighbourhood store, Share of chain store, and Share of cafe & Western food store. Through the cluster analysis, three types have been identified. Type1 is the first step which can explain the time before gentrification occurs and when the ratio of neighborhood facilities is the highest. Type2 is the second step that can explain boutique stage where the gentrification occurs. At this time, the ratio of Cafes & Western food restaurant increased and the proportion of neighborhood shops decreased. And Type3, third step is when the mature gentrification occurs. In the analysis of the transition period, it is necessary to monitor the change of the industry in the period from the first stage to the second stage. In the transition period from the second stage to the third stage, It is necessary to constantly monitor such factors as the increase of shops.

Application of Space-Time Pattern Analysis to Detect Commercial Gentrification Diffusion Area

Donghyun Kim, Jina Park / Journal of Korea Planning Association (KCI)

Abstract

As the commercial streets in the residential area are vitalized, commercial use is spreading to nearby areas. The aim of this study is to propose space-time pattern analysis as tool to derive gentrification diffused area. We analyzed the characteristics of the commercial gentrification with spatio-temporal concentration of industry changes using the space-time permutation scan statistic. The main results of this study are as follows. First, three diffused clusters are derived from Bukchon. Second, commercial gentrification in Bukchon spread throughout 2007 and 2013~2014. Third, diffused clusters have similar commercial characteristics to existing commercial areas at the time of diffusion.

Analysis of Regional Image Change and Facility Effect Before and After Establishment of Urban Regeneration Base Facility: Focused on the Platform Changdong 61

Kwangyoung Seo, Jina Park / Seoul Studies (KCI) / https://www.si.re.kr/node/59990

Abstract

이 연구는 도시재생 붐업사업으로 조성된 거점시설의 시설효과와 조성 전후에 따른 지역이미지 차이를 분석하고 지역주민과 타 지역주민 모두 지역이미지 개선이 되었는지 살펴보았다. 이를 위해 서울시 도시재생사업구역 중도시 경제기반형 사업이 시행중인 창동·상계지역과 거점시설 ‘플랫폼 창동61’을 분석 하였다. 연구결과, 첫째, 물리·환경적 효과와 문화적 효과가 지역전반에 영향을 주었다. 둘째, 지역주민과 타 지역주민 간 재생기반 마련 효과는 물리·환경적 효과와 경제적 효과 항목에서만 차이가 없었다. 셋째, 도시재생거점시설 조성 전·후에 따라 지역이미지가 개선되었다. 넷째, 지역주민과 타 지역주민 간 지역 이미지 변화 차이를 비교하였을 때 모든 항목에서 유의한 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 이러한 결과를 바탕으로 도시재생 거점시설의 기능과 효과를 알아볼 수 있었으며, 향후 진행될 연계사업과 시설을 통한 지역이미지 관리의 필요성을 제시할 수 있다.

This research aims to analyze whether there is a regional image difference between before and after establishment of base facility and the effects of urban regeneration base facilities , and whether other local residents and local residents were affected by regional image improvements. For this purpose, the analysis was conducted focusing on “platform Changdong 61”. First, physical, environmental and cultural effects have affected the whole area.. Second, the physical · environmental and cultural effects of the facility effect after the establishment of the urban regeneration base facility were positive. Third, we confirmed that the improvement of regional image has changed positively before and after the establishment of urban regeneration base facility. Fourth, local and other local residents showed a positive effect of improving their regional image before and after the establishment of the urban regeneration base facility. Based on these results, it was possible to identify the functions and effects of the urban regeneration base facility and suggest the necessity of regional image management through the linked projects and facilities.

Stage Classification and Characteristics Analysis of Commercial Gentrification in Seoul

Yoonchae Yoon, Jina Park / Sustainability / https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072440

Abstract

Recently, local shops and small houses in Seoul have been converted to cafes, western style restaurants, and large chain stores. These changes, recognized as commercial gentrification in residential areas, are now a big issue in Korean society. This phenomenon has some positive effects, such as the emergence of new consumption spaces and improved neighborhood images. However, this study concentrated on changes in regional characteristics, landscape, and industry homogenization. This study demonstrates the presence of a cyclical environmental change process commonly identified in areas of gentrification and identifies characteristics of individual stages of the gentrification process. The results indicate that medium-scale local stores in Stage 1 changed to small-scale food and beverage businesses in Stage 2. Then, in Stage 3, they changed to large-scale clothing retailers. In particular, the process of change from Stage 2 to Stage 3 revealed that, as the diversity of business types decreases, their uses change and the proportion of chain stores increases. In other words, although Stage 2 has the highest level of mixed use and density, indicating the greatest level of vitality, commercial gentrification to Stage 3 results in decreases in use, the number of aged buildings, and density. Thus, Stage 3 can be identified as the stage in which streets lose their vitality, as suggested by Jacobs. To maintain street vitality, it is suggested that commercial district management occurs during the transformation from Stage 2 to Stage 3 of commercial gentrification.

Effects of Commercial Activities by Type on Social Bonding and Place Attachment in Neighborhoods

Byungsuk Kim, Jina Park / Sustainability (SSCI) / https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061771

Abstract

Place attachment is an emotion that people experience in connection to a specific place and it is needed to maintain a sustainable neighborhood community. The emotion is affected by various factors, such as experience, function, environment, and satisfaction. This study focuses on commercial structures, which are one feature that characterizes the physical environments of neighborhoods. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of commercial activities in different commercial environments on social bonding and place attachment in residents. Two sites were selected for analysis due to their different commercial environments, and path analysis was used to examine the relationships among factors. The results indicate that commercial activities, which can vary according to commercial type, had both direct effects and indirect effects through social bonding between residents on place attachment. These results suggest that the commercial environment is an important element affecting the community and place attachment of residents in neighborhoods.

A Study on the Rational Use of Side Space Between Buildings along the Commercialized Street as a Small Vacant Space: Focused on the actual condition of the side space use and user demand survey

Jiah Lee, Jina Park / Journal of Korea Planning Association (KCI) / https://doi.org/10.17208/jkpa.2018.04.53.2.67

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to analyze the status and the demand of users about using the side space between buildings along the commercialized street in the general residential area and to examine the problems of current urban planning system which is different from reality. The results of the study are as follows. As the lower part of the building is commercialized, it is confirmed that the business activity spreads to the side space. It is mainly the expansion of existing stores, the installation of outdoor terraces or the small shops. Despite these illegal acts, there has been a continuing demand for such use. This suggests the need to improve the uniformed application of existing urban planning system as the characteristics of the area change from residential to commercial. Also, the use of the side space was positive in the street activation side in both the shop-keeper and pedestrian, but the friction with the system was still a problem. Therefore, from the viewpoint of creating an idle space in overcrowded urban areas as a part of urban regeneration and presenting management policies, it is necessary to improve the usage area in the long term and establish detailed guidelines considering characteristics in each area in the short term.

Analysis of Landscape Image of Pedestrian According to Whether Side Space is Utilized as Space Between Buildings: Focused on Commercial Street in General Residential Area

Kwangyoung Seo, Jiah Lee, Jina Park / Journal of the Urban Design Institute of Korea (KCI)

Abstract

본 연구는 일반주거지역 내 상업가로의 건축물 사이공간 활용현황을 조사하고 이용여부에 따라 보행자의 경관이미지를 분석하고자 한다. 이를 위해 서울시 일반주거지역 내 상업기능이 정착한 신사동 가로수길, 합정 · 상수 지역의 건축물 사이공간을 대상으로 연구를 진행하였다. 이용 특성에 따라 유형을 분류하고, 활용 전 · 후 보행자 관점의 경관 이미지를 분석 하였다. 분석결과, 첫째, 광고물 유형을 제외한 모든 유형을 활용했을 때 긍정적인 경관이미지가 나타났다. 둘째, 모든 유형에서 활용 전 · 후에 따른 t-검정 시 유의 한 차이가 있음이 확인되었다. 셋째, ANOVA분석을 통해 소규모 상점, 테라스 및 야외매대, 상점입구, 광고물 순으로 긍정적인 경관 이미지 효과가 나타났다. 이러한 결과를 바탕으로 건축물 사이공간의 활용유형과 효과를 파악할 수 있었고, 가로 경관 및 활력에 긍정적인 영향을 준다는 점을 객관적으로 제시하였다.

This study aims to analyze the pedestrians’ landscape image in accordance with the matter of utilizing the space between buildings on commercial streets within general residential areas. For this, the research was conducted targeting the space between buildings in Hapjeong/Sangsu area and Garosu-gil of Sinsa-dong where commercial functions have been settled down within general residential area of Seoul-si. Analyzing the type in accordance with the characteristics of use, the landscape image in the pedestrians’ perspective before/after utilization was analyzed. In the results of analysis, first, when every type was utilized except for the advertisement type, the positive landscape image was shown. Second, in case of t-test in accordance with before/after utilization, every type showed significant differences. Third, in the results of ANOVA, there were positive effects of landscape image in the order of small store, terrace & outdoor display stand, store entrance, and advertisement. Based on such results, the type of utilization and effects of space between buildings could be understood. This study objectively suggested its positive effects on the street landscape and vitality.

Influence Factors on Commercial Street Satisfaction During Day and Nighttime: Focused on Insadong Street, Jongro-gu, Seoul

Byungsuk Kim, Jina Park / Journal of the Urban Design Institute of Korea (KCI)

Abstract

본 연구는 주 · 야간 상업가로만족도에 미치는 영향요인을 확인하기 위해 서울시 인사동길을 선정하였다. 조도차이에 따라 인사동길의 구간을 분류하고 구간별 주 · 야간 설문조사를 실시하였다. 위계적 회귀분석을 실시하여 주 · 야간별 상업가로에 영향을 미치는 요인을 확인하였다. 그 결과 첫째, 주간의 경우 구간 간 가로만족도차이가 없는 것으로 나타났으나 야간은 유의미한 차이가 나타났다. 둘째, 주간은 쾌적성의 영향력이 가장 높았으며, 건축물, 상업환경 순으로 분석되었다. 야간은 건축물, 가로, 연속성 순으로 영향력이 높게 나타나 경관적인 측면이 강해지는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 이러한 결과는 상업가로인 인사동길의 가로만족도는 주 · 야간환경에 따라 그 영향요인이 달라질 수 있다는 것을 의미하며, 주 · 야간별 차별화된 계획이 중요하다는 것을 말해준다.

This study selected Insadong Street to identify the influence factors on satisfaction level of night and daytime commercial streets. Insadong Street was divided into sections according to the difference of illumination intensity, and a survey was done on each section per day and night. A hierarchical analysis was also performed. The result shows that first, there was no difference in satisfaction per each section during daytime, but significant difference appeared during nighttime. Second, the influence factor of comfort was the highest during daytime followed by buildings and commercial environment. During nighttime, the influence factor of buildings was the highest followed by streets and continuity, which indicates that the scenic aspect has a powerful influence. This result means the satisfaction level of streets in Insadong Street, which is a commercial street, can have different influence factors during daytime and nighttime, which implies the importance of differentiated plans for daytime and nighttime.